LYMPHOMA

Adult Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Overview

Adult Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system.

Adult Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a type of cancer that develops in the lymph system, part of the body’s immune system.

The lymph system is made up of the following:

Lymph – Colorless, watery fluid that travels through the lymph system and carries white blood cells called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes protect the body against infections and the growth of tumors.

Lymph vessels – A network of thin tubes that collect lymph from different parts of the body and return it to the bloodstream.

Lymph nodes – Small, bean-shaped structures that filter substances in lymph and help fight infection and disease. Lymph nodes are located along the network of lymph vessels found throughout the body. Clusters of lymph nodes are found in the underarm, pelvis, neck, abdomen, and groin.

Spleen –An organ that produces lymphocytes, filters the blood, stores blood cells, and destroys old blood cells. It is located on the left side of the abdomen near the stomach.

Thymus –  An organ in which lymphocytes grow and multiply. The thymus is in the chest behind the breastbone.

Tonsils – Two small masses of lymph tissue at the back of the throat. The tonsils produce lymphocytes.

Bone marrow – The soft, spongy tissue in the center of large bones. Bone marrow produces white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.

Because lymph tissue is found throughout the body, Hodgkin’s lymphoma can begin in almost any part of the body and spread to almost any tissue or organ in the body.

Lymphomas are divided into 2 general types: Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

There are 5 different types of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. These 5 types are based on the way they look under a microscope.

Nodular sclerosing Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Mixed cellularity Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Lymphocyte depletion Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Risk Factors

  • Being in young or late adulthood.
  • Being male.
  • Being infected with the Epstein-Barr virus.
  • Having a first-degree relative (parent, brother, or sister) with Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Signs & Symptoms

  • Painless, swollen lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, or groin.
  • Fevers (unexplained).
  • Drenching night sweats.
  • Weight loss (unexplained).
  • Itchy skin.
  • Tiredness.

Diagnosis as per modern science

  • Physical Exam and History
  • Complete Blood Count
  • Sedimentation Rate
  • Blood chemistry studies
  • Lymph node biopsy
  •  Immunophenotyping

Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Overview

The lymph system is part of the immune system and is made up of the following:

Lymph: Colorless, watery fluid that travels through the lymph system and carries white blood cells called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes protect the body against infections and the growth of tumors.

Lymph vessels: A network of thin tubes that collect lymph from different parts of the body and return it to the bloodstream.

Lymph nodes: Small, bean-shaped structures that filter substances in lymph and help fight infection and disease. Lymph nodes are located along the network of lymph vessels found throughout the body. Clusters of lymph nodes are found in the underarm, pelvis, neck, abdomen, and groin.

Spleen: An organ that produces lymphocytes, filters the blood, stores blood cells, and destroys old blood cells. It is located on the left side of the abdomen near the stomach.

Thymus: An organ in which lymphocytes grow and multiply. The thymus is in the chest behind the breastbone.

Tonsils: Two small masses of lymph tissue at the back of the throat. The tonsils produce lymphocytes.

Bone marrow: The soft, spongy tissue in the center of large bones. Bone marrow produces white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.

Because lymph tissue is found throughout the body, adult non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma can begin in almost any part of the body. Cancer can spread to the liver and many other organs and tissues.

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma can occur in both adults and children.

Lymphomas are divided into two general types:

Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Risk Factors

  • Being older, male, or white.
  • Having one of the following medical conditions:
  • An inherited immune disorder.
  • An autoimmune disease.
  • HIV/AIDS.
  • Human T-lymphotrophic virus type I or Epstein-Barr virus.
  • A history of Helicobacter pylori infection.
  • Taking immunosuppressant drugs after an organ transplant.
  • Being exposed to certain pesticides.
  • A diet high in meats and fat.

Signs & Symptoms

  • Painless swelling in the lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, groin, or stomach.
  • Fever (unexplained).
  • Drenching night sweats.
  • Constant tiredness.
  • Weight loss (unexplained) in the past 6 months.
  • Skin rash or itchy skin.
  • Pain in the chest, abdomen, or bones (unexplained).

Diagnosis as per modern science

  • Physical Exam and History
  • Complete Blood Count
  • Sedimentation Rate
  • Blood chemistry studies
  • Lymph node biopsy
  • Bone Marrow Biopsy

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